Stock exchanges are an integral part of the stock market. Market capitalizations of the biggest stock exchanges in the world are in billions of dollars. The majority of stock exchanges are in developed countries but as time is passing new players are also emerging and the list of stock exchanges is increasing. It demonstrates how the demand for stocks, shares, and other financial assets transcends geographical boundaries. Especially since investment limits on global stock markets are being loosened by governments all around the world. In this article, we will inform you about the top 10 stock exchanges in the world.
What are Stocks Exchanges?
Companies can raise funds on stock markets, and investors can use this information to make educated judgments. Historically, buy and sell orders were shouted by individuals standing on the floor at stock exchanges, which were largely physical locations. Despite the common perception of the trading floor, several exchanges today employ electronic trading.
Today, most transactions take place virtually, with computers connecting buyers and sellers. Around the world, several stock exchanges serve various markets. One of the numerous stock exchanges in the world is the NYSE, which is also the biggest when it comes to market capitalization, which counts all of the securities traded there. Amsterdam Stock Exchange founded in 1602 is the oldest stock exchange in world.
The buying and selling of financial instruments issued by firms take place on a stock exchange. They comprise a larger portion of the capital market ecosystem. An organization can be traded on an exchange when it is ‘listed’ there. Exchange-specific conditions for listing include, among other things, having a certain level of shareholders, revenue, and stock price. After being issued in the primary market, corporate securities, such as shares and bonds, are exchanged on stock exchanges.
The creation of liquidity for financial instruments is mostly facilitated by stock exchanges. An order-matching algorithm underpins the trading of securities on stock exchanges, ensuring that the best buy and sell orders are matched. The stock exchanges make money by charging the trading members a certain fee.
List of Top 10 Stock Exchanges in the World
Companies benefit from the reputation of being listed on a significant stock market in exchange for fulfilling these conditions. A well-known exchange listing increases a company’s visibility in the worldwide market. This list contains the biggest stock exchanges in the world. Let us begin.
The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is the biggest in the world and among the top 10 stock exchanges in the world. The trading that takes place on the NYSE is followed by investors from all over the world because it has an impact on the trading that takes place on all of the other stock exchanges the following day. A significant fraction of the largest blue-chip stocks in the world, including Johnson & Johnson, Berkshire Hathaway, and JPMorgan Chase & Co., are listed on the NYSE. The listed businesses are diverse across all industries.
The activity of the NYSE as one of the biggest stock exchanges in the world always has an impact on trade the following trading day at other exchanges. The Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) which is a 30-stock price-weighted index of 30 well-known equities, serves as the benchmark index for the NYSE. The DJIA has drawn criticism despite its considerable importance since it does not adequately reflect the firms listed on the NYSE. The NYSE Composite Index and the S&P 500, which tracks 500 of the top US corporations, are two further respected indices.
The second-largest stock exchange in the world is called NASDAQ, which stands for National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations. The largest digital titans in the world like Apple, Microsoft, Amazon, Google, and Facebook are among the more than 3,000 firms that are listed on NASDAQ. Recently, there has been a lot of interest in NASDAQ, and this interest first surfaced in the late 1990s, during the height of the dot-com boom.
With the growth of technology and its impact on the United States and the rest of the world, it keeps attracting growing interest from market participants. Stocks, futures, and options are among the trading items it offers. Notably, the NASDAQ has never listed any pillars of the ‘old economy’ such as oil and gas corporations.
The majority of the stocks that are only listed on the exchange are included in the NASDAQ Composite, which is the NASDAQ’s benchmark MCap-weighted index. The stock must be common stock and cannot be a preferred stock or an exchange-traded fund to be listed on NASDAQ Composite. The NASDAQ 100 index, which only contains the 100 largest non-financial businesses listed on the NASDAQ, is another noteworthy index. Roughly 90% of the NASDAQ Composite is comprised of these 100 firms.
The Shanghai Stock Exchange, one of the three biggest stock exchanges in the world, is the biggest stock exchange in the world’s most populous nation, China. The Shanghai Stock Exchange lists several enormous large-cap firms, such as the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, PetroChina, and Agriculture Bank of China. It is a nonprofit organization that falls under the China Securities Regulatory Commission’s jurisdiction (CSRC). Chinese capital account restrictions imply that the country is not entirely accessible to international investment.
The SSE trades money, derivatives, equities, and bonds. The exchange offers two different kinds of stocks: ‘A’ shares in the local renminbi yuan and ‘B’ shares in US dollars. The SSE Composite, which includes all of the exchange’s equities, serves as the benchmark index for the SSE. The SSE 50 Index, which measures the capitalization of the top 50 firms, and the SSE 180 Index are two more of the indices. No wonder this exchange is among the top 10 stock exchanges in the world.
The Hong Kong Exchange is the second-largest stock exchange in Asia and the fourth-largest in the world. Hong Kong is one of the major financial centers in the world. Individuals working in the finance sector may find a comprehensive and top-notch financial environment in Hong Kong. As a result, it has drawn several overseas market players. It is almost as large as the Shanghai Stock Exchange, and if it continues to grow at the incredible rate it has in the past, it will soon exceed the Shanghai Stock Exchange.
The Hang Seng Index which is made up of 50 companies that account for around 58% of the total MCap of the HKEX and is a free-float, the adjusted-MCap-weighted index serves as its benchmark index. Some of the largest businesses in the world are headquartered at the exchange, including China Mobile, PetroChina, Bank of China, Tencent Holdings, China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC), Agricultural Bank of China, and HSBC Holdings. The Hong Kong Futures Exchange Ltd. and Hong Kong Securities Clearing Company Ltd. were two notable mergers that the HKEX underwent.
On January 1, 2013, the Tokyo Stock Exchange and the Osaka Securities Exchange merged to become the Japan Exchange Group. The market capitalizations of the 3rd and 4th largest stock exchanges in the world are pretty comparable to theirs. The first sector of the stock exchange consists of major corporations and section two consists of mid-sized enterprises. Stock, international equities, index funds, index futures, and other trading instruments are available at this SE. It is renowned for its market surveillance and compliance systems.
The Nikkei 400, the TSE’s metric index, is home to a number of massive Japanese companies with global exposure, including Sony, Toyota, Suzuki, Honda, and Mitsubishi. The Japan Exchange Group has more than 3,800 firms listed. These businesses are almost all listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Nikkei, the main index of the Tokyo Stock Exchange, includes a number of illustrious firms, including Honda, Mitsubishi, Toyota, Suzuki, and Sony.
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The Shenzhen Stock Exchange is the smallest of China’s three stock exchanges in the list of top 10 stock exchanges in the world. Nevertheless, it has one of China’s largest market caps. Shanghai Stock Exchange, Hong Kong Exchange, and Shenzhen Stock Exchange’s combined market capitalization would be almost comparable to NASDAQ’s market capitalization.
The SZSE Component Index, which consists of 500 equities, and the SZSE 100, consisting of the top 100 firms on the market, are two of its benchmark indices. The SZSE is a self-regulatory legal organization, although the China Securities Regulatory Commission carefully monitors it (CSRC). When there is a lot of volatility, the CSRC has the authority to intervene.
It lists about 1,180 businesses, the bulk of which are Chinese. The exchange serves as the trading venue for popular financial products such as mutual funds, options, futures, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), and A-shares, which are traded in the local currency, and B-shares, which are traded in US dollars for overseas investors.
A pan-European stock market network Euronext is based in Amsterdam. Paris, Lisbon, Brussels, Dublin, Milan, Amsterdam, London, and Oslo are among the exchanges run by Euronext. Equities and derivatives are both available through Euronext, including products like equities, ETFs, bonds, FX trading, options, and futures, among others. More debt and funds are listed there than on any other market globally.
Several flagship indices under this stock exchange include the blue-chip Euronext 100, which includes the 100 biggest and most liquid equities listed on the market. Almost 65% of the index is made up of French firms. Michelin, Phillips, Aegon, Peugeot, Alstom, L’Oreal, Arcelor Mittal, BNP Paribas, Royal Dutch Shell, Unilever, Schneider Electric, and other well-known businesses are just a few examples.
With its headquarters in London, The London Stock Exchange Group (LSEG) operates a stock exchange and provides financial information to investors and traders. Europe’s primary benchmark price, markets, and equity-market liquidity statistics were established by the LSE.
The London Stock Exchange (FTSE) 100 index and Financial Times serve as its benchmark index. The FTSE 250, FTSE All-Share index, and FTSE 350, are some other indices. More than 1,900 firms are listed on the LSEG, which is situated right in the middle of the financial district of the world.
It holds a majority position in LCH and Tradeweb and controls the London Stock Exchange, LSEG Technology, Refinitiv, and FTSE Russell. Bonds, derivatives, exchange-traded commodities (ETCs), ETFs, debt securities, and gilt-edged securities are just a few of the secondary market products offered by the LSE.
Being India’s first dematerialized electronic exchange, NSE has only been operating since 1992, making it the youngest stock exchange on the list of top 10 stock exchanges in the world. It lists more than 1,600 businesses. The NIFTY 50, which includes the top 50 equities listed on the market, serves as the flagship index of this biggest stock exchange in India. Both domestic and foreign investors pay close attention to the index, which is a key sign of the health of the Indian stock market.
The legendary Bombay Stock Exchange consistently poses a challenge to the NSE’s status in India (BSE). Reliance, HDFC Bank, Infosys, Tata Consultancy Services, HDFC, ICICI Bank, and Kotak Mahindra Bank are some of the well-known companies that make up NIFTY.
10. TMX Group
The TMX Group, with its headquarters in Toronto, is the tenth-largest stock exchange in the world and the final member of our ranking. The TMX Group, a provider of financial services, owns 100 percent of The TSX. Exchange-traded funds (ETFs), stocks, bonds, futures, options, commodities, investment trusts, and more are among the financial products traded on the TSX. With more mining and oil and gas (O&G) firms listed on the TSX than any other stock market in the world, it has a unique affinity for these businesses.
The Standard and Poor (S&P)/TSX 60 is the benchmark index for the TSX and is mostly dominated by energy firms. The National Bank of Canada, Franco-Nevada, Fortis, CGI, and Rogers are just a few of the large corporations with TSX listings.
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In the table given below, we have compiled all the important details of the top 10 stock exchanges in the world for you to check out.
|Sr. No.||Stock Exchange||Founded In||Location||Number of Companies Listed||Market Cap.||Top Companies Listed|
|1.||New York Stock Exchange (NYSE)||1792||Wall Street, New York, U. S||2,578||US$26.2 trillion||
|2.||NASDAQ||1971||New York City, U.S.||3,765||US$19.4 trillion||
|3.||Shanghai Stock Exchange||1990||Shanghai, China||2,158||US$7.62 trillion||
|4.||Hong Kong Exchange||1891||Central District, Hong Kong||2,240||US$46.59 Billion||
|5.||Japan Exchange Group||2013||Kabutocho, Chūō, Tokyo, Japan
Kitahama, Chūō-ku, Osaka, Osaka, Japan
|6.||Shenzhen Stock Exchange||1990||
|7.||Euronext Exchange||2000||Amsterdam, Netherlands||2,000||US$5.08 trillion||
|8.||London Stock Exchange||1801||City of London, England, United Kingdom||1,971||US$55.49 Billion||
|9.||National Stock Exchange||1992||Mumbai, Maharashtra, India||1,641||US$3.4 trillion||
|10.||TMX Group, Canada||2008||Toronto, Ontario, Canada||1,790||US$5.72 Billion||
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How does Stock Exchange work?
Stock exchanges are the secondary market. So what is a secondary market? Well, a primary market is a place where new securities are created. On the other hand, a secondary market is a place where investors can exchange existing securities. Stock exchanges are regarded as secondary markets because of their second solution.
Private firms can raise a lot of money through an IPO on the primary market, but continuing trading on the secondary market determines the stock’s current value through supply and demand. In general, a stock exchange can function as a dealer market or an auction market.
- Dealer Market: Multiple dealers, or ‘market makers’, list the prices at which they’re ready to purchase and sell a security in a dealer market. The discrepancies between the stated bid and ask prices show the cost to investors. Market makers participate in the process with their own money and seek to increase liquidity, which speeds up and simplifies trading.
- Auction Market: In an auction market, traders place bids on the price of a share depending on how fervently they hope the firm will succeed or how much of a stake they would like to own. In most cases, sellers want to be fairly valued while purchasers try to receive the lowest price so they may sell for a profit later.
Compared to the OTC market, where transactions are handled by an intermediary rather than directly between two parties, trading through a stock exchange is often safer. The OTC market often has less regulation than the stock exchange and includes riskier, smaller businesses like penny stocks.
Role of Stock Exchanges
Through the facilitation of commerce and the dissemination of information, stock exchanges serve as an agency for the economy. By supervising the registration of new securities and arranging necessary filings, such as quarterly financial reports, this government agency makes sure that listed firms do not engage in fraud.
This keeps companies open to possible purchasers. Listed firms, traders, and investors all benefit from a few important services provided by stock exchanges.
Some Important functions
Here are some of the functions or purposes of all the exchanges on the top 10 stock exchanges in the world list.
- Corporate Governance: The management of a company is continuously the subject of public scrutiny, which has a direct impact on the firm’s worth. Companies that are publicly traded on a stock market are required to abide by reporting requirements that are established by governing organizations. They must also publicly and regularly declare their financial results to their shareholders.
- Improve Liquidity: Companies can raise cash through IPOs or the issuance of new shares to finance ongoing operations and expansion plans. This gives businesses opportunities to accelerate their growth. New firms can raise money on stock exchanges, which also provide investors access to immediate order access. The largest stock exchanges in the world encourage market liquidity by enabling quick stock exchanges that barely influence the price.
- Increase Transparency: For buyers and sellers to make wise investment decisions, exchanges must make sure that they have access to reliable, current price and order information.
- Security And Safety: Accessibility is an essential component of the puzzle, but it’s also critical that buyers and sellers be trustworthy and properly verified. To lower the risk of default, stock exchanges make sure that participants comply with all requirements and follow rules as stated.
- Improve Economy: Exchanges promote economic performance by facilitating capital allocation in addition to promoting managerial efficiency. Many people invest their money through stock markets as opposed to just conserving it, making the economy more productive.
- Protect Investors: Exchanges must provide safeguards, such as accurately classifying equities by level of risk, to persons with less financial expertise as they are available to both institutional and less experienced investors. This fosters consumer confidence and guards novice investors against significant financial loss.
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What are Electronic Exchanges?
Electronic trading is currently available on many exchanges in the list of top 10 stock exchanges in the world. There are no merchants, and there is no actual trading. Instead of needing a central location where sellers and buyers can meet, trade occurs on an electronic platform. These exchanges process daily deals worth billions of dollars and are thought to be quicker and more efficient than traditional exchanges. One of the most important electronic exchanges in the world is the NASDAQ.
The significance of stock exchanges in a nation’s economy is crucial. Traders and investors can invest and trade in stocks as well as other assets such as commodities, securities, and derivatives using their platform. Before investing, it is crucial to comprehend how the functions of the exchange. Hopefully, this article outlining the top 10 stock exchanges in the world can help you have a better picture of the exchanges and what makes them the best.
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